HEALTHY NUTRITION - THE PLEDGE OF HEALTH AND LONGEVITY
The correct (healthy) food is an integral part of a healthy lifestyle, the basic rules of which should be laid since childhood and stuck to throughout lives. Unfortunately, at present, number of people with excess body weight and obesity in our country is growing. This problem is the most relevant at the moment in relation to children and young people, as excess weight and obesity affects nearly 30% of the population, half of them do not reach 18 years. In 2006 in Minsk were registered about 500 children with this disease, and in 2010 - 1,000 children. , About 7-10% of children of this amount are of preschool age. The most common cause of this situation is the alimentary, i.e. banal overeating due to the prevailing habits in the family. Quite often parents overfeed the baby, offering him a portion of the volume greater than his age is, as well as giving preference to the use of semi-finished products in the diet or fast food. A similar situation is often presented in the diet of schoolchildren and students who refuse from organized food in school and student canteens, prefer chips, hot dogs, sweat carbonated drinks. Quite often, children, like adults, "eat" the problems associated with learning, relationships in the family and the team. One in four children has overweight, one in eight - is obese.
Let us dwell on the basic principles of the right (healthy) food:
- The daily diet should contain adequate amounts of protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. The amount of protein in the diet should meet the physiological norm - 1-1.5 g per 1 kg of body weight. Animal protein should be at least 60% of the daily amount of protein (lean meat, fish, eggs, milk and dairy products must be present in the diet).
- Optimal fat - 0.8-1.0 g per 1 kg of body weight per day. Fats are retained longer in the stomach and reduce the excitability of the brain, eliminating the feeling of hunger. Vegetable fats increase the activity of enzymes that stimulate the process of dissolution of fat in the body. The ration of the total amount of fat should be 30-35% of vegetable oils for cooking and adding to salads.
- It is desirable to limit the amount of carbohydrates to 3-3.5 g per 1 kg of body weight per day, primarily due to simple sugar, sweets.
- The number of meals throughout the day must be at least 4-5 times (3 main meals and 2 additional presented by fresh fruit and vegetables, best in the raw). The main caloric intake should occur in the first half of the day.
- The intervals between meals should not exceed 3.5-4 hours.
- The amount of free liquid is not less than 1.5 liters per day (unless contraindicated). It is better to drink and use for cooking bottled or filtered water at home. For a drink, you can use non-carbonated mineral water with the lowest degree of mineralization, fresh juices, tea, coffee. It is better not to drink coffee on an empty stomach, after 18 hours, it is desirable not to drink green tea, hibiscus tea, coffee, juice from acidic fruits.
- In the morning on an empty stomach, it is desirable to drink a glass of liquid of room temperature. The interval between the last meal and fluid intake should be 20-30 minutes, between food and fluid intake, followed by at least 30 minutes. The optimum ratio between the solid and liquid portions of food during an intakeshould be at least 2: 1. Last fluid intake - for 1-1.5 hours before bedtime.
- Last meal before 2.5-3 hours before bedtime.
- Eat slowly, chewing food thoroughly, get up from the table as soon as you feel a feeling of fullness, but not when ready to burst.
- Avoid following combinations in one dish: protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, seafood), and foods rich in carbohydrates (cereals, bread, bran, potatoes, sweet fruits and berries).
- It is preferred to limit salt intake to 5-7 g per day.
- Nutrition should be as diverse as possible. In the gastrointestinal tract there is sufficient human enzyme capable to cleave various products.
- Avoid multi-dishes. For a time, do not mix more than 3-4 kinds of products (not including spices and vegetable oil).
- Especially are useful vegetables containing pectin and cellulose. They create a feeling of satiety, regulate bowel function, remov the residues. These include cabbage, zucchini, radishes, tomatoes, cucumbers, squash, leafy greens.
- Vegetables can be eaten raw, steamed, boiled, steamed and grilled. Fresh vegetables are preferable to use with a vegetable oil (sunflower, olive, flaxseed). When cooking vegetables the water should not completely cover there surface. . Salt, oil, and natural spices is better to add at the final stage of cooking.
- Meat, poultry, fish can be baked, steamed, grilled. It is better to eat these food with vegetable garnish. Poultry and fish peel is desirable not to eat.
- Methods of cooking (descending quality): grill (aerogrill, microwave oven grill, barbecue, chargrill); steam cooking; baked in the oven; salt; jerky; boiled; stew.
- Bread must be present in the diet,. It is better to eatgrain, branny, protein.
- Home cooked sauces are better: with vegetables, spices - natural: bay leaf, peppercorns, parsley, cilantro, celery, cloves, cumin, garlic, fennel, cloves, ginger.
For the prevention of excess weight and obesity in addition to food physical activity in the form of physical education during school hours is of great importance not only to. Most preferred swimming, cycling, skiing, dancing, watching and better with the whole family.
The main freelance nutritionist of
Ministry of Health M.V.Popova